AskDefine | Define summer

Dictionary Definition

summer n : the warmest season of the year; in the northern hemisphere it extends from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox; "they spent a lazy summer at the shore" [syn: summertime] v : spend the summer; "We summered in Kashmir"

User Contributed Dictionary

see Summer



  • a UK: /ˈsʌmə/, /"sVm@/
  • a US: , /ˈsʌmɚ/, /"sVm@`/
  • Rhymes with: -ʌmə(r)

Etymology 1



  1. One of four seasons, traditionally the second, marked by the longest and typically hottest days of the year due to the inclination of the Earth. Typically regarded as being from June 21 to September 20 in the Northern Hemisphere and from December 21 to March 20 in the Southern Hemisphere.
    the heat of summer
Derived terms
hottest season


  1. To spend the summer, as in a particular place on holiday.
    We like to summer in the Mediterranean.
spend the summer, as in a particular place on holiday

Etymology 2


  1. A horizontal beam supporting a building.

Etymology 3

sum + -er


  1. A person who sums.
Derived terms

Extensive Definition

Summer is one of the four temperate seasons. Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days.


Summer begins on June 20th in 2008 in Humber Summit Middle School. The seasons are considered by some Western countries to start at the equinoxes and solstices, based on astronomical reckoning. In North American-printed English-language calendars, based on astronomy, summer begins on June 20, the day of the summer solstice and ends on September 20, the autumn equinox. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.
In Ireland, summer begins on 1 May and ends 31 July, by the Irish calendar.
But, because the seasonal lag is less than 1/10th of a year (except near large bodies of water), the meteorological start of the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, precedes by about three weeks the start of the astronomical season. According to meteorology, summer is the whole months of December, January, and February in the Southern Hemisphere, and the whole months of June, July, and August in the Northern Hemisphere. This meteorological definition of summer also aligns with commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest (and warmest) days of the year, in which the daylight predominates, through varying degrees. The use of astronomical beginning of the seasons means that spring and summer have an almost equal pattern of the length of the days, with spring lengthening from the equinox to the solstice and summer shortening from the solstice to the equinox, while meteorological summer encompasses the build up to the longest day and decline thereafter, so that summer has many more hours of daylight than spring.
Today, the meteorological reckoning of the seasons is used in Australia, Denmark, the former USSR and by many people in the United Kingdom, but the astronomical definition is still more frequently used in the United States.
In general, seasonal changes occur later in coastal regions, so countries close to the oceans summer to start later (with the exception of Ireland) than inland ones. Elsewhere, however, the solstices and the equinoxes are taken to mark the mid-points, not the beginnings, of the seasons. In Chinese astronomy, for example, summer starts on or around May 5, with the jiéqì (solar term) known as Lixia (立夏), i.e. "establishment of summer", and it ends on or around August 6. An example of Western usage would be William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, where the play takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice. In southern and southeast Asia where the monsoon occurs, summer is more generally defined as March to May or early June, their warmest time of the year, ending with the onset of the monsoon rains.


In most countries children are out of school during this time of year for summer holidays, although dates vary. Some begin as early as mid-May, although in England, from the ages of 5-18, school ends in the middle of July. In the Southern Hemisphere, school holiday dates include the major holidays of Christmas and New Year's Day. Summer school holidays in Australia begin a few days before Christmas and end in late January to mid-February, with the dates varying in different states.
Summer is an important season for the social agenda of individuals. Generally, the summer season in most regions of the world has an evident increase in tourism. Outdoor activity is also a hobby, taken by many people during this season, due to the favorable conditions. Leisure tasks are also associated with summer, due to the number of people on vacation.



summer in Arabic: صيف
summer in Asturian: Branu
summer in Aymara: Panqara phaxsi
summer in Belarusian: Лета
summer in Bosnian: Ljeto
summer in Breton: Hañv
summer in Bulgarian: Лято
summer in Catalan: Estiu
summer in Czech: Léto
summer in Welsh: Haf
summer in Danish: Sommer
summer in German: Sommer
summer in Estonian: Suvi
summer in Modern Greek (1453-): Καλοκαίρι
summer in Erzya: Кизэ (шкань вал)
summer in Spanish: Verano
summer in Esperanto: Somero
summer in Basque: Uda
summer in Persian: تابستان
summer in French: Été
summer in Friulian: Istât
summer in Galician: Verán
summer in Classical Chinese: 夏
summer in Korean: 여름
summer in Hindi: ग्रीष्म ऋतु
summer in Croatian: Ljeto
summer in Indonesian: Musim panas
summer in Icelandic: Sumar
summer in Italian: Estate
summer in Hebrew: קיץ
summer in Georgian: ზაფხული
summer in Swahili (macrolanguage): Kipindi cha Kiangazi
summer in Haitian: Lete
summer in Kurdish: Havîn
summer in Latin: Aestas
summer in Lithuanian: Vasara
summer in Hungarian: Nyár
summer in Macedonian: Лето
summer in Marathi: उन्हाळा
summer in Malay (macrolanguage): Musim panas
summer in Dutch: Zomer
summer in Dutch Low Saxon: Zoemer
summer in Japanese: 夏
summer in Norwegian: Sommer
summer in Norwegian Nynorsk: Sommar
summer in Narom: Êté
summer in Polish: Lato
summer in Portuguese: Verão
summer in Romanian: Vară
summer in Russian: Лето
summer in Southern Sotho: Lehlabula
summer in Albanian: Vera (stinë)
summer in Sicilian: Estati
summer in Simple English: Summer
summer in Slovak: Leto
summer in Slovenian: Poletje
summer in Serbian: Лето
summer in Serbo-Croatian: Leto
summer in Finnish: Kesä
summer in Swedish: Sommar
summer in Thai: ฤดูร้อน
summer in Vietnamese: Mùa hạ
summer in Tajik: Тобистон
summer in Turkish: Yaz
summer in Ukrainian: Літо
summer in Urdu: موسم گرما
summer in Venetian: Istà
summer in Võro: Suvi
summer in Vlaams: Zomer
summer in Yiddish: זומער
summer in Dimli: Amnan
summer in Samogitian: Vasara
summer in Chinese: 夏季

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

aestival, arctic, autumn, autumnal, boreal, broiling sun, brumal, buy time, canicular, canicular days, consume time, dog days, equinoctial, fair weather, good old summertime, growing season, heat wave, hibernal, hiemal, high summer, hot wave, hot weather, humid weather, keep time, kill time, look for time, measure time, midday sun, midsummer, midwinter, muggy weather, occupy time, out of season, pass time, put in time, race against time, seasonal, solstitial, spend time, spring, springlike, stuffy weather, sultry weather, summerlike, summerly, summertide, summertime, summery, sunshiny weather, take time, take up time, use time, vernal, vertical rays, warm weather, weekend, winter, winterlike, wintery, wintry, work against time
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